This work examines the unique way in which Benedict de Spinoza (1632–77) combines two significant philosophical principles: that real existence requires causal power and that geometrical objects display exceptionally clearly how things have properties in virtue of their essences. Valtteri Viljanen argues that underlying Spinoza's psychology and ethics is a compelling metaphysical theory according to which each and every genuine thing is an entity of power endowed with an internal structure akin to that of geometrical objects. This allows Spinoza to offer a theory of existence and of action – human and non-human alike – as dynamic striving that takes place with the same kind of necessity and intelligibility that pertain to geometry. Viljanen's fresh and original study will interest a wide range of readers in Spinoza studies and early modern philosophy more generally.
Primary Sources Online
- Constitution Society
Ethica, TTP (Jonathan Bennett's translations).
- Project Gutenberg
Ethica (Dutch). TIE, TTP, Ethica (English).
- Rudolf W. Meijer Site
TIE, Ethica, TP, Ep (Latin).
- Spinoza / BDSweb
Various primary sources in Dutch, English, French, German, Latin, and Russian.
- Spinoza et Nous - Philosophie de l'affirmation - Oeuvres
TIE, TTP, Ethica (French).
- The Spinoza Study
KV, TIE, CM, TTP, Ethica (in split-frame mode).